The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth’s ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions.
The climates of polar lands vary greatly depending on their latitude, proximity of the sea, elevation, and topography, but, even so, they all share certain “polar” characteristics. Owing to the high latitudes, solar energy is limited to the summer months. Although it may be considerable, its effectiveness in raising surface temperatures is restricted by the high reflectivity of snow and ice.