South Korea, an East Asian nation on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, shares one of the world’s most heavily militarized borders with North Korea. It has a population of 51.75 million, of which roughly half live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fifth largest metropolis in the world. South Korea is a highly developed country and is ranked as the seventh-highest country on the Human Development Index in the Asia and Oceania region. South Korea has the third-highest life expectancy in the world.
South Korea has two volcanic islands Cheju, off the peninsula’s southern tip, and Ullŭng, about 85 miles east of the mainland in the East Sea and a small-scale lava plateau in Kangwŏn province. The greatest influence on the climate of the Korean peninsula is its proximity to the main Asian landmass. This produces the marked summer-winter temperature extremes of a continental climate while also establishing the northeast Asian monsoons that affect precipitation patterns.